11 April 2017
Rehabilitation and Reintegration programmes that help reduce re-offending among Māori
Rehabilitative interventions used by Corrections that are responsive to the needs of Māori:
Specialist Māori Cultural Assessments are undertaken by independent, contracted Māori assessors to motivate Māori offenders who are considered unmotivated or uninterested in participating in rehabilitation programmes to consider a culturally-enhanced pathway out of offending. The assessment is available to offenders in the Northern Region and at Waikeria Prison.
Tikanga Māori Programmes comprise a range of culturally-responsive motivational programmes for offenders who identify as Māori. Because they are designed and delivered by local providers they vary from site to site. It is not necessarily expected that such programmes will impact on the likelihood of reoffending; they are intended to motivate participants to engage effectively in other rehabilitative interventions.
Te Ihu Waka Framework was designed and implemented to ensure the consistent delivery of tikanga Māori programmes. All programmes delivered under the framework are structured around the kaupapa of manakitanga, whanaungatanga, rangatiratanga and wairuatanga.
Te Tirohanga is the collective name for five, 60-bed custodial units and also the name of the national programme that operates within those units. Te Tirohanga programme comprises six, three-month phases with a total programme duration of 18 months. The programme is underpinned by a pro-social behavioural framework based on kaupapa Māori values provided by iwi representatives of the Māori Governance Board: wairua, whanau, manaaki, kaitiaki and rangatira. The core rehabilitation programme for Te Tirohanga is the Mauri Tu Pae programme (described below). Integral to the programme's work in reducing re-offending is the interdisciplinary team in each whare, often including whanau and others such as kaumatua and kuia, which ensures a collective and coordinated approach in transitioning tane from the programme to the next part of their journey.
Mauri Tu Pae is a group-based therapeutic rehabilitative programme designed for medium-risk Māori prisoners. It was developed by Māori service providers to address the offending and cultural needs of offenders within a kaupapa Māori context.
The Department operates six high-intensity Special Treatment Units (STU) programmes for prisoners at highest risk of violent or sexual re-offending. Two of these units have a special focus on treating child sex offenders. The model implemented in these units incorporated tikanga Māori cultural components into the cognitive behavioural therapy model, and worked for both Māori and non- Māori.
The Department operates Drug Treatment Units (DTUs) to assist programme participants to address their dependence on alcohol and other drugs. Prisoners are taught about addiction, change, relapse and the effects of their actions upon others. The DTU at Whanganui Prison is located within the Te Tirohanga unit. In addition to the DTUs, the Department provides a suite of drug and alcohol programmes of varying levels of intensity depending on the need of the individual.
Māori Toa Rangatahi ("the power of youth") is part of the medium intensity suite of rehabilitative interventions offered by the Department. Māori Toa Rangatahi runs for 36 sessions over nine weeks and is delivered in both prisons and the community. The programme was developed and is implemented with a bicultural lens to ensure it is relevant to the significant proportion of the Department's youth population who identify as Māori.
The Department has developed a Family Violence Programme based on contemporary international best practice in offender rehabilitation, and it is interwoven with tikanga concepts and processes.
All prisons offer parenting support programmes, intended to improve outcomes for the children of prisoners, reduce intergenerational reoffending, and reduce participant re-offending by supporting the creation and maintenance of positive family ties.
The Work and Living Skills Brief Drink Drive Intervention aims to reduce low-level repeat driving offences, and in particular offences related to drink driving, driving while disqualified, and driving without a licence. The programme targets high-volume, lower-tariff offenders.
The Department offers literacy and numeracy programmes, and recently contracted Te Wananga o Aotearoa (IWoA) to deliver programmes across all prisons. The programme integrates a Māori teaching style and basic to reo Māori literacy to increase English reading and numeracy skills. TWoA is also contracted to advise the Department on how to build each prison's capability to better support the literacy and numeracy needs of prisoners.
A Te Ara Māori unit was established in 2016 at Manawatu Prison, with strong support from iwi representatives, and aims to provide a tikanga-based environment to support male offenders to strengthen their cultural identity. This is achieved through the delivery of Tikanga Māori Programmes that are part of the suite of interventions under the Te Ihu Waka framework. An 18-bed Te Ara Māori unit was opened at the Auckland Region Women's Corrections Facility in 2016.
Te Kupengaa highly-tailored, whanau-centric approach aimed at reducing intergenerational whanau offending. Involved three staff, including a Māori Services Team Area Advisor, establishing and leading a multi-agency approach to rehabilitation with a whanau comprising two parents and their six children, all of whom were either on a community sentence or in prison.
The Gang Whānau Engagement Framework, which aims to promote greater involvement of pro-social gang whanau and/or other prosocial support for gang offenders, and inform practitioners about the unique differences in the impact of gang influence on men, women, youth and children who want to change to a pro-social lifestyle. The project has taken a cross-agency, co-development approach with Police, Ministry of Social Development (Work and Income, Child Youth and Family), Te Puni Kokiri, iwi, community groups, the Waka Moemoea Trust, and health professionals and staff representatives with experience working with gangs.
Out of Gate is an initiative in which providers (including the National Urban Māori Authority) work with short-serving and remanded prisoners to help them reconnect with their whanau and community and every aspect of their reintegration into the community. The work begins with release planning inside prison, and continues as case management support once they are released. The Department achieves an 8.5 per cent effect size for Māori prisoners who complete the "Out of Gate" programme. This compares to a 6.2 per cent RQ re-imprisonment effect size for all prisoners who complete the "Out of Gate" programme (Māori and non- Māori).
Tiaki Tangata is a Māori -focussed, whanau-centric integration programme that supports long-serving Māori offenders who are being released from prison to transition successfully back to their local community. It is delivered entirely by Māori service providers, most of whom are part of Whanau Ora collectives with an empowering manakitanga and whanaungatanga framework.
Whare Oranga Ake focuses on reintegrating prisoners who identify as Māori by using a kaupapa Māori environment to strengthen the cultural identity of participants. The Department has two Whare Oranga Ake units. The units are for minimum security male prisoners and are located outside the prison's perimeter fence.
The Rotorua, Tokoroa and Taupo programmeis a reintegration service that provides mentoring support and accommodation and employment outcomes to offenders who have an enduring connection to these geographical areas.
The Department is constantly assessing whether its services, including Māori specific services, are effective in reducing re-offending for all participants.
The Department's engagement with Māori
The Department has a variety of formal and informal relationships with Māori groups, through which the Department engages Māori at both an operational and strategic level.
Formal relationship agreements
The Department has formal relationship agreements with Māori. Some of these relationships have arisen out of negotiations for the settlement of historical Treaty of Waitangi claims, others have developed in different ways:
Treaty settlement relationships: As a direct result of the process to settle historical Treaty of Waitangi claims, the Department has relationship agreements with two iwi groups: Taranaki Whanui ki Te Upoko o Te ka, and Te Hiku o Te Ika, a collective of five Far North iwi including Te Aupouri, Te Rarawa and Nga Takoto. There is also an intention to start engagement with Ngati Pahauwera in light of its Treaty settlement with the Crown;
Non-Treaty settlement relationships: The Department currently has partnership agreements with Te Runanga o Tupoho, Tuwharetoa Māori Trust Board, Ngad Naho Kaitiaki Society, Ngati Rangi Hapu Development Committee, Pukaki ki Te Akitai, Poutini N& Tahu, Rangitane o Manawatu, Te Runanga o Raukawa, Te Tau Ihu o Te Waka and Te Taumutu in Christchurch. These agreements have been signed by the Minister of Corrections, the Chief Executive or operational managers. Some of these agreements have led to hapu being involved in the design and development of facilities and of operational services.
The Kiingitanga – accord signed between Corrections and the Kiingitanga with the mutual interest in the cultural, social, physical and economic health and well-being of Māori prisoners and offenders.
Collaborative operational relationships
The Department also has collaborative operational relationships with Māori communities, and contracts with various NGOs (which include urban Māori authorities, Māori service providers, and service providers who deliver Māori responsive programmes) in the delivery of rehabilitation and reintegration services. These include:
Te Runanganui o Ngati Porou reintegration initiativesin which the Māori Services Team is working with Te Runanganui o Ngati Porou to support intensive reintegration of tribal members who are returning to home locations north of the Wharerata Ranges.
Ngati Kahungunu Iwi Incorporated (NKII) is involved with Te Tirohanga programme, and the Department is working with NKII to support the development of Te Ara Matua, the Ngati Kahungunu Restorative Justice Pathway and Model.
Connections with Whanau Ora collectives have taken place at a number of the Department's sites and the potential exists for greater engagement in the future.
Regional level initiatives: the Department has many regional level initiatives where the Department partners with local Māori communities.
Community Work at marae. The Department manages roughly two million hours of community work a year, a huge amount of which is done at marae. This is an informal, but strong reciprocal relationship by which marae get work done and offenders see some of what is available to them in the community.